How To Set a A Static IP Address In Windows – Server Basics

A lot of my articles, and IT work in general requires setting a static IP address up for your Windows Server or PC. So here’s how to do it.

Note that this procedure will work equally well for Windows 10, and Server 2016. The procedure is fairly similar for Server 2008 and 2012 though it’s easier to go through the “Network and Sharing Center” to get to the Adapter Settings. The idea is pretty similar for Windows 7/Vista. If you’re using Windows XP, it’s still pretty similar but getting to the Network Properties Window is different.  This guide is specifically for Server 2016.

How To Set a Static IP Address in Windows Server 2016

Step 1 – Click the Start button and then click the gear button on the left hand side of the start panel. This should bring up the Settings Window.

Step 2 – Select “Network and Internet”

Step 3 – Select “Ethernet” from the left hand side. If you’re connected with WiFi, you can click that, it’s all going to the same place eventually anyway. 

Step 4 – Under related settings click on “Change Adapter Settings”. You can also get here in fewer steps by opening the Control Panel, changing the view to “Large Icons”, opening the “Network and Sharing Center” and clicking on the “Change Adapter Settings” on the left.

 

Step 5 – Find your active Ethernet Adapter and right click on it and hit properties. Many actual servers have two when they come out of the box, so if you’ve got it hooked in to your router it’ll be the one that isn’t grayed out. My server is just a fancy PC so it just has one. Normal PC’s usually just have one, so it’s pretty easy to figure out. If you’re trying to do this for your WiFi adapter, right click on it and hit properties, the process is the same.

Step 6 – Most networks are still IP4 so click on TCP/IPv4 settings and hit the “Properties” button.

Step 7 – Enter your static IP address information. If you aren’t sure exactly what to put here, refer to the quick and dirty network guide at the end of this article. I’ll post a better one later for setting up a basic flat network.

Step 8 – Click OK on everything and you’re done!

Quick and Dirty Network Analysis Guide

So you know you server needs a static IP but you don’t really know how to figure out exactly what IP to use? Or even what to put in the DNS information? Well here’s a few tips. Keep in mind this is a method I’ve used for small networks where I had no information going in and it works pretty well but is by no means 100% fool proof. There are things in more complicated networks that can cause this not to work, but for most small to medium sized business and home networks this is a good way to go about it.

Step 1 – Determine Network IP Layout

Find a PC already on the network, open a command prompt and type “ipconfig /all” and hit enter. This should bring up all kinds of network information. You’ll see an IP address, subnet mask, gateway and DNS servers, DHCP server, and other stuff. Write it all down. It’ll probably look something like this on a small network.

IP – 192.168.1.102
Subnet Mask – 255.255.255.0
Gateway – 192.168.1.1

DNS Server: 192.168.1.1
Alternate DNS Server: 8.8.8.8 (may not even have one)

DHCP Server: 192.168.1.1

This is probably a basic network. Again, write it all down, it’s important. Other IP schemes could be something like 10.1.1.1 or 172.16.0.100 or something like that. This method really only starts getting weird on big networks with subnet masks like 255.255.0.0 or really small ones with masks like 255.255.255.240. If you see that, you will probably need to do some additional research.

Step 2 – Find a Free IP address that Hopefully Is Not In DHCP Range

If the IP address is something like 192.168.1.100 or 192.168.1.103, there aren’t many computers on the network, and the DHCP server is the same as the gateway, you’re in luck. It’s a super basic network. If the DHCP server is different, it still doesn’t matter much it’s just something to keep in mind. Likely the range is 192.168.1.100-192.168.1.200. So just cross those IP’s off your list of possibilities.

Personally, for servers I like to start low. So open a command prompt and type “ping 192.168.1.2” and see if you get a response. If you do, type the same thing except change that last 2 to a 3 and keep doing that until you don’t get a response. When you don’t get a response, that’s you’re IP address. Likely as not you won’t get one on your first try if it’s a really small network and they don’t have a server, but there might be some network printers or something in the way and you don’t want to have conflicting IP addresses.

Now if it’s a regular PC or something I like to start higher, so I personally would start at around 240 and start pinging.

Step 3 – Enter the IP Information Into your Server or PC.

Take your newly found IP address and the information you wrote down and enter it into the server using the steps above. Make sure it matches. Practically every time this will work. If you get a “Duplicate IP Address” warning just go back to pinging on a working PC until you find another free one. Sometimes firewalls or something have pinging turned off. There is also free network scanning software you can download that will make this process a lot faster.

Note: If anyone has a better, faster, or quicker way to find a free IP address that you can do from a normal workstation on a network or something I’d be glad to post it. Like I said, this is the method I’ve been using for small networks for a long time where I’ve had no information going in and just needed to install a printer or appliance or something.

Adding ShoreTel Option 156 to Old Cisco Routers

Found this in my book of notes today. Thought I’d pass this along. There’s a lot of old Cisco Routers out there that configured as DHCP servers on small networks with ShoreTel phones on them. Here’s how to set them up to auto-configure your phones.

I’m assuming the router’s DHCP pool has already been set up. You can use SDM, SDM Express, or any number of other GUI’s to do this. For the options though you have to be in command line. I’m also assuming a basic knowledge of Cisco Routers.

Step 1- Telnet or console into the router. Get into configuration mode (type en, enter your password, then type config t and enter your password if it asks.)

Step 2 – Type: ip dhcp pool [pool name] (might check your running config to get this). If you set the pool up in SDM it should be something like sdm-pool1.

Step 3 – Type: option 156 [ASCII] “ftpservers=xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx”. You may or may not be required to type in the ASCII option, newer routers need it, older routers don’t. Entirely dependent on your IOS version. Also if you have VLANS, set up your string accordingly, the router can pass this information on as well.

If you have older versions of ShoreTel I think the option is 66 for the ftp server. That option will work for newer versions too, but 156 is the more flexible.

Step 4 – Exit out of config mode, save your work and reboot your phones. They should now be getting FTP server information.

 

How To Child Proof Your Internet At Home For Free

A lot of people ask me this and unfortunately it’s one of those hard things to just tell someone how to do verbally. A lot of parents want to filter the internet for their kids, something that I don’t blame them for. I will post a few really hard to bypass methods, but this one is tough enough to get around that your average middle schooler probably won’t have enough skill or knowledge to bypass. It is also super easy to implement.

This is the DNS blocking method of parental control. The great thing about it is that you don’t need any special software on your kid’s computer. This is filtered past the router level and for the most part works very well.

The quick and dirty method of blocking adult content is by using OpenDNS’s preconfigured FamilyShield Method. I would also like to point out that a nice side effect of this method is your internet will be a bit faster as far as finding websites are concerned. A drawback is you might see just a touch more advertising when you make a typo on a web address.

Use Open DNS FamilyShield

Step 1 – Log into your router. You can check my “Setup Home Wi-Fi” article for how to child proof your router. Added benefit, this will keep people on the street out of your home internet service too.

Step 2 – Go to the section where you set up your DHCP server, most of the time this is under network settings. On Cisco/Linksys routers (which I recommend) this actually on the first screen you see (basic setup). Look at the DNS servers. Usually this will have your router address under the fist entry. Change the DNS settings here to:

DNS 1: 208.67.222.123
DNS 2: 208.67.220.123

Click Save

Step 3 – Once these changes are committed (make sure your router address is not in the DHCP server DNS list), reboot everything in your house so they get the new DNS settings.

This is all you should have to do, you may need to reboot things a few times before it takes effect. If you’ve got some weird brand of router this will still work, but you’ll want to go to opendns.com and check out their instructions, they’ve got a pretty comprehensive router database.

Note: If you have AT&T DSL, their tech support people can probably walk you through this. Just tell them you’d like to change your DNS servers to OpenDNS so you can filter the internet for your kids. Just give them the numbers above and they will likely walk you through all this if you have one of their 2WIRE modems.

Now a lot of IT professionals will tell you this is fairly easy to bypass. If you’ve got a kid who’s really good with computers, they might figure out how to bypass it. If you are a parent, e-mail me and I can tell you how to bypass this on your own devices.

I have a somewhat more advanced, more difficult to bypass method involving a Cisco/Linksys router and DD-WRT that I’ll be publishing soon. It’s cheaper than what I consider the BEST method, but definitely not free (unless you’ve already got the router, don’t mind messing with it and don’t mind paying roughly $5 more a month for internet).

Quite frankly this is not the best option but it’s free, and for most families it’s good enough. If you want to know how to do this right and make it tough for your children to get around even if they know that one kid who knows everything about computers, check back here for an article on one of the best pieces of hardware a parent can buy.

If you found this information useful please comment (I LOVE novel length comments!), Facebook about the blog, tweet the article (check out the buttons below) or send me a note on the contact form up above. Also check out that Amazon ad below, there’s usually something good in the rotation.

 

 

Assigning a Specific SNTP Server to ShoreTel Phones

It doesn’t come up often but occasionally you’ll find your phones aren’t getting the right information from your network’s time server. Some partners will set up the ShoreTel server as the SNTP server for your phones. I’ve been told this isn’t great practice anymore.

Your network may not be set up in a way that makes using DHCP to pass your phones settings to them possible. This means  you have to manually place all your settings in each phone right? Actually no. Some settings that are the same across all phones can be assigned with those text files on your ShoreTel FTP server.

One of those settings is which SNTP Server to use. You have to do this for each specific model of phone you use. I’ll show how to do this for a 230 phone and then share how to figure out which file goes to which kind of phone. I believe this can be done for a specific phone as well, but newer versions of ShoreTel may have changed this.

Fair warning. You can mess some settings up if you get this wrong. It’s not a bad idea to back up your C:\inetpub\ftp\root directory.

Step 1 – Log Into your ShoreTel server.

Step 2 – Open the folder C:\inetpub\ftproot – Back this folder up.

Step 3 – Look for a text file called “sevcustom.txt”

Step 4 – Add the line:” SntpServer [IP Address of NTP Server]” without the quotes. The IP address of the NTP server can be the IP address of your primary domain controller, or theoretically an online NTP server, but this is not ideal.

Step 5 – Save the file.

Step 6 – Reset a 230 phone and see if it doesn’t pick up the correct time server now.

Step 7 – If it does, it’s a simple matter of resetting all the 230 phones on the network.

The first two or three numbers or letters of the custom.txt file is the model number of a phone. Flip a ShoreTel phone over and look at the barcode on the back. Above the barcode should read “IP TELEPHONE MODEL xxx”. The xxx part is the model of the phone. The 230’s say SEV, 560’s will say S6 and so forth and so on.

You could always just add the line to each custom file.

Another thing to look out for is in the shore_xxx.txt text files. There should be a line that says ‘Include “xxxcustom.txt”‘. If it isn’t there, add it. You can also change this to another global custom text file with your edits.

Update 12/17/2014 – You can also name the files with the MAC address of a phone to put specific settings on individual phones. The text file needs to be named shore_xxxxxxxxxxxx.txt where the xx’s are the MAC address of the phone. The MAC address is the long “serial number” on the back of the phone under the bar code.

How to Swap out a T1 Voice Switch Shoretel

Short one today. I’ve been having a few issues with phone calls here, so after getting a new circuit and all that the problem didn’t resolve, so i’m thinking it’s our T1 switch. I wanted to make a few notes on how to go about swapping them out.

 Step 1 – First set up the switch in ShoreTel Director. You don’t need a new set of trunk groups or anything, just the new switch.

Set your switch up however you normally do, personally I use static IP addresses for my switches and program them through the serial port. Honestly you could set up DHCP reservations in your DHCP server too. You might have to enter the server IP through the console, but when it boots into the server the first time the server actually changes this, so it might not be necessary (I’ve seen it do it on a packet sniffer and yes it kept changing it to the wrong IP).

Step 2 – Make sure the T1 settings are the same on both switches as you are setting up a replacement, and you’ll be hooking the existing T1 into the new switch, not adding any additional capacity. It’s also not a bad idea to check with your phone company on these settings if you can.

You can just set up the first Trunk in the T1 switch and use “Fill Down”. Make sure they are set up on the existing trunk group, again it’s best if you don’t make a new trunk group as you’ll have to re-enter everything.

Step 3 – When you’re ready all you should have to do now is move the T1 from one to the other. I always like to unplug the old switch just to make it show “offline” and not “D-Channel Down” as that can freak out other people getting into the Director.

I like to leave the old settings in place in Director for several days when I do this just to make sure everything is fine. Once you determine the new switch works fine, just delete the old one. That’s really all there is to it.