CMOS Batteries – Most Common Type

Quick post for something to add to your toolkits. Occasionally a CMOS battery will go out, especially on an old machine that’s been sitting around a while. They last several years but not forever. I’ve seen some ancient machines that use some weird battery packs but most motherboards use plain old ‘CR2032’ lithium batteries. You can be a sucker and go buy them locally for way more than what they’re worth or get a few dozen of them now for about fifty cents each if you need one.

KEYKO 10pc C2032 Lithium Coin Cell Battery

The above link has ten packs, twenty packs, and fifty packs. If you look around you can find them in hundred piece blister packs. Personally I wouldn’t buy that many unless you work with a lot of old computers. They do go bad, not quickly but they do.

They’re also handy to have around for other things. Small kitchen scales, alarm clocks and other devices use them either as their power source or as a memory backup. You can also replace old gameboy game cartridge batteries with them.

Just had to use one for a computer I ‘refurbished’ for a ClearOS server build I just did. Don’t get caught unprepared!

Extending Your WI-FI With a Repeater

More of a home technology post and how to this time. Repeaters are not necessarily something you’d really consider in a business setting unless you’ve got a small shop with just one or two users somewhere and just need to extend your WIFI range or something and don’t want to spend a lot of money with cable to do it.

For home use just to get your Wi-Fi out into your yard or into that one dead spot in your house, a wireless repeater is a pretty decent way to do it. I’d never had good luck with them until I came across this one on Amazon. It’s the JCG JWA-N8002 WIFI Repeater.

It actually has a lot more functions that just working as a repeater which I will definitely be putting guides up for.

Note: This repeater is an older model. It works on B+G+N. They make another model that works with N+AC but I can’t find them for sale. Also note that the one pictured doesn’t have the US plug, but the two I’ve bought so far do. I think the N80002 is the US/Canadian model and the U25 is for the European market.

The great thing about this repeater is, usually you can find them on Amazon for like $14. The sad thing is, they go really fast! One complaint I saw was the instructions are hard to decipher so I’m posting instructions here.

Setting Up The JWA-N8002 As A Repeater

Step 1: Figure out a good place for the repeater. You need an empty wall outlet. It also needs to be where it can get signal from your WiFi router. Don’t plug it in somewhere in the dead spot. Put it between the dead area and your router. A good place is where you get about two bars of signal from your router.

Step 2: Once you’ve figured out a spot, get your laptop, or tablet. Plug the repeater into the wall and wait a few minutes. They take a moment to turn on.

Step 3: Connect your computer to the repeater. The default network the repeater is set to is JWA-N8002. The password is 12345678. This is printed on the device as well.

Note: Alexis points out below that the password might be different. Alexis’ password was ‘uquququq’

JCG Wireless
It’s the top option here.

Step 4: Open your web browser. I prefer Firefox these days, but I have used Chrome. If you use Internet Explorer, you may need to use “Compatibility View”. Browse to enter the username admin, and the password is also admin.

JCG Admin Password
Default username is admin, password is admin.

Step 5: The basic set up wizard should already be set to “Repeater”. If it isn’t select it. Leave the “Auto Copy From Router” checked. Mine did not have the “Auto. Configure Lan IP Address” checked. I think if you don’t have a DHCP Server on your router you might need to check that.  Next, click the “Site Survey Button”. Don’t change anything else on this screen.

JCG Repeater Easy ConfigStep 6: Check out which wireless networks it found. Make sure you can see yours and it has at least two bars of signal. If it doesn’t you might want to move it. It might be good with just one. Here’s what mine looked like.

JCG Repeater Easy Config With Site Survey
It found my neighbors too. TheGreenTower is mine. The one called “TheGreenTower-ext” is a repeater I already set up. TheGreenTower-ext would be a good network to repeat off of. The Suddenlink6092 might not be since it can barely see it.

Step 7: Select your Wifi Network and enter your password in the “Pre-Shared Key” box. You may need to select “Passphrase” from the drop down menu.


JCG Repeater Easy Config With SSID Selected

Step 8: Hit save and apply.

If you entered everything correctly the repeater will reboot and you’ll see a new wireless network called “yournetwork-ext” and you can connect to it using the same password as your regular one.

You should be able to connect to your Wi-Fi in any dead spots.

DSL vs. Cable Internet, What’s the Difference?

This is something that I’ve been asked a lot recently. A lot of people don’t really understand what the differences between the two most common broadband internet types are. So as someone who has worked for not one, but two internet service providers I feel qualified to break it down for people.

If you’re looking for what you need to get connected at home, I’ve set up an Amazon store that has the products I recommend on it. Check it out and consider buying from there, the prices are almost always lower that what you’ll find at the retail stores.

What is DSL?

DSL is an acronym for Digital Subscriber Line. It’s basically a technology that sends data over a normal phone line (POTS line). Practically all DSL service in the US is actually “ADSL” which means Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line. The only thing that means is that the download speed will be higher than the upload speed.

DSL is usually sold by one of two kinds of providers. The first type is the top-level phone company directly. By top-level I mean whoever actually owns the infrastructure that goes to your home. In the US this is usually a larger company like AT&T, or Verizon. There are also some smaller companies like Windstream that provide service directly to smaller towns.

The other DSL provider will be  a local, or semi-local re-seller  This is a smaller company that resells services for the top-level company. Basically they buy the loop (the physical wire or circuit that goes to your house or business) and sell it to you and then give voice and data over it themselves. Most of the time these smaller companies are a lot cheaper as they’re getting the loops from AT&T for a few dollars and then reselling to you for a profit. They’re also the most limited in what they can actually do. Typically their customer service is better to make up for speed deficiencies.

DSL, like all data connections, is limited by distance from the Central Office (DSLAM). You need to be within a mile (~2km) to get the best connection. After that first mile the guaranteed speeds will drop until you get about 19,000 feet (roughly 3.5 miles or ~5km) away. In my experience the smaller providers probably won’t offer you service at that distance.  This is where your re-seller companies fall short. Big companies like AT&T will put repeaters out so they can sell to more people at higher speeds. Smaller re-sellers typically can’t or more likely won’t do this so they are limited to a circle about three miles around the central office.

If you live in a small town you can safely assume the only central office is down town. Small cities will usually have multiple central offices so it might be difficult to find what kind of service might be available to you specifically. Unfortunately I don’t know of any tool available to the public to look this stuff up. Your internet service provider/phone company has access to these tools with the top-level company and they can tell you how far you are away.

Speeds vary from place to place. I’ve seen as high as 25Mbps download speed and as lows as .768Mbps download. For some reason download speeds with DSL are parcelled out in multiples of three until you hit the 20Mbps range, so you can expect to see 1.5 (half of 3), 3, 6, 12 and 15Mbps speeds advertised. Upload speeds are typically under a megabit as most home consumers don’t need upload speeds faster than that. If you do need faster upload speeds you can usually ask for them. Re-sellers are more likely to work out a deal with you than the bigger companies. Typically the lowest speed any company offers is 1.5Mbps download and .3Mbps upload (they’ll say 300Kbps to sound bigger). Of course the smaller the town the slower the speeds most of the time.

DSL service will require you to have a modem. Some companies will just give you a modem, most will just or rent you a modem at a discount with a contract. You can also provide your own and they’ll usually have a compatibility list on their website. Most Best Buy stores will carry modems compatible with your local service. I have an Amazon store with various equipment on it that is universally compatible. I HIGHLY recommend if you are considering AT&T that you get a modem from them as they will actually set it up for you. Be aware that if you provide your own modem, most DSL providers won’t give you any real technical support.

Note: I’ve seen some conflicting information about the distances I talk about above, some of it from sources on the internet, and from other people that have worked in the industry. I chose the numbers above because they were what I have been told most commonly over the phone, and what I had to tell customers when I worked at an ISP. Different technologies, geographical considerations, city size, line quality and other factors can drastically change what speeds you can get. The above distances are just a common rule of thumb, not an exact measurement for everywhere.


What is Cable Internet?

Cable internet service is a data connection that is provided through your cable service provider. The same coaxial line that your cable television comes in can be used to provide data (and voice services!) as well.

Most cable companies will provide some sort of internet service in addition to television. You’ll mostly hear cable internet referred to as “DOCSIS” (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification). There are as of this writing three major versions of this. There’s DOCSIS 1, DOCSIS 2, and DOCSIS 3. There are a few minor versions but most home users don’t have to worry much about that.

This sort of internet service requires a few extra steps to set up but is usually more available to consumers. If you can get cable television, you can usually get cable internet. I am not sure what the limitations are as far as distance goes, but those limitations do exist. Some smaller towns may not have cable internet available even if the television service is. This is rare but I’ve seen it. Most people in those towns usually have satellite television/internet anyway because of how rural they are, at least in the United States.

It’s been my experience that cable providers can give you far higher speeds than DSL in the same area. The DOCSIS 3.1 standard should allow for 10Gbps download speeds. Even here in Amarillo, with a measly two hundred thousand population you can get 100Mbps download service to your house in many places if you are willing to pay for it. Smaller towns can still get 8-12Mbps service download speeds with cable if you are actually living inside the town.  Standard service seems to be in 20Mbps range for cities.

Like DSL, cable is delivered with asynchronous speeds. Your download speed will be higher than your upload speed. The trend is to give between 1 and 2 megabit upload speeds even if the download speed is far higher. Cable internet download speeds seem to be advertised in multiples of five for some reason. You’ll usually see 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50Mbps speeds advertised.

A lot of cable companies will give you a modem if you ask. Usually they’ll rent them to you for $5 a month or so. If you are lucky they might just give it to you with a contract. As cable modems tend to burn out after two years or so, I recommend buying the modem yourself with home cable internet service. The biggest reason for home users is the leasing arrangement will cost you more over time, and you can usually get a compatible modem cheaper from Amazon or Best Buy than your cable company. If you have a business, lease the modem. Because they tend to burn out, the cable company will replace worn out leased modems and you get priority service (Sometimes you can just take the bad modem to the local office yourself and they’ll swap it out for you right there). If you as a business owner don’t want to lease the modem, buy two identical modems and keep one unopened as a spare.

Unlike DSL providers, it has been my experience that the cable companies will give you a bit more technical support if you provide your own modem. This is primarily because of how cable internet service works, you have to call them to activate the modem. If the modem is compatible with their service, they set it up for you. I’ve got an Amazon store set up that has modems compatible with most of the US cable providers.

So What’s the Real Difference?

The difference boils down to speed, who provides the service, and how big your city is.

Cable tends to be faster, cheaper and more available than DSL in many places. At least in my experience it tends to be a bit less reliable. You’ll have a few more outages per year than DSL. Usually cable companies tend to just say you can’t get service in an area and not telling you that your speeds will be lower if there’s a distance issue. One big disadvantage to cable is that there is usually one single provider that has a monopoly on the area so you can’t call somewhere else for a better quote.  Cable internet comes through your cable television provider.

DSL tends to be a bit more reliable, but it usually slower and a little more expensive in some areas (not always, sometimes it’s far cheaper than equal cable, but the top speeds aren’t as high). It also tends to be less available in smaller towns than cable. The other problem is that sometimes your next door neighbor can get a very fast speed, but you can’t.  One big advantage with DSL is that there are usually multiple competing companies in an area that can provide it. DSL comes through your telephone provider.

Either way you can get DSL without land line (POTS) phone service really cheap in most cities. If you get your DSL through a major company like AT&T there are some perks like free WiFi access at certain hotspots, which is awesome for people who travel a lot. If you get cable internet you usually get complimentary basic cable television with it, and you can usually also get your land line service as well for a discounted rate (I know people who have worked out their cable service in such a way that the internet is free and they pay a dollar for a land line).

There are advantages and disadvantages to both types and you should really call both kinds of providers and see what they have to offer before deciding. At the end of the day it really comes down to where you live and what you’re willing to pay.

I know I mentioned this at the beginning of the article and once in the middle, but I’m providing another link to the Home Internet Needs store on Amazon I set up so you don’t have to scroll looking for it.

How to Keep Your Personal Contacts Synced and Up To Date

I’m a big fan of Google Mail. I can’t count the times it has saved me from a lot of trouble. I used to keep a contact list on Outlook and managed to sync it to my various cell phones via sketchy software that barely worked and required a lot of editing. These days your data plan is such that you can sync from Google, Microsoft, or any one of a number of other services.

I’ve worked as an IT technician in some form or another for the past decade and I don’t know how many times someone has come to me complaining that their personal contacts were lost. There are a few really common situations that cause this.

1. Loss or change a job. This is the most common by far. Your contacts were all on your company’s Exchange or RIM server and now your account has been blocked. Note that being fired isn’t the only reason this can happen. Simply changing jobs and forgetting to back them up can cause this. Note: Some companies might not want you keeping your customer contacts on your phone after you leave, so be careful here and always follow company policy. Keep in mind that if they have a policy like this, they should be providing you with a CMS system or something to keep everything separate. If you are an IT pro or small/medium business owner and are interested in customer management software, contact me, my consulting rates are pretty inexpensive.

2. Server/PC Crash. I don’t even know how many times I’ve seen this. E-mail server dies, contacts go away. Have to rebuild the server, backups sucked and they are just gone. Sometimes they taunt you by showing up as blank contacts.

3. New Phone. Settings sometimes don’t transfer.

So how does one prevent this? Well like a lot of computer related things, it’s usually a matter of changing your habits. Industry people like to throw around the term “Best Practices” because it sounds fancier.

Best Practices for Keeping Contacts

First things, first, get away from Outlook on your computer for your personal contacts. Go sign up for an, Gmail, or potentially even Yahoo! Mail. I heavily suggest the Microsoft Option or the Google option, stay away from Yahoo!, they are way more ad happy now than the other two.

I will assume you went with the Gmail option for now, though if you went with Microsoft Live, drop a note below or contact me. I’d like to write a how-to using it.

The next thing you want to do is export your contacts from Outlook or whatever other program you were using and import them into Gmail. Google has kindly put up a page that will tell you how to do this from a lot of other providers.

Exporting Contacts From Other Providers


Once you’ve got your CSV file, you import them into Gmail. Once again, Google has provided this information, so I won’t repeat it here. Here’s the link:

Importing CSV Files Into Gmail


After you’re done importing your contacts into Gmail, make sure they are cleaned up like  you want. Gmail has a tendency not to put meaningful labels on email addresses or phone numbers after import. So if someone has multiple phone numbers, you’ll want to make sure to label them with “Home”, “Work”, or “Mobile” so your phone can tell you where they are calling from. You’ll also want to do the same with addresses, e-mail addresses, and anything else. I like to make sure the phone numbers are formatted correctly and add job titles and companies to my contacts, even if they are friends and family.

Once your contacts are cleaned up, you’ll want a backup. I don’t think Google is in danger of going away any time soon, but you may change e-mail addresses or something weird might happen. You might also want a CSV copy of your cleaned up contacts for other reasons. For instance, mail merge software might use it. So keeping a backup is good, I back mine up like this a few times a year. All you want to do is export your Google Contacts. Here’s the relevant link. I’d go with the Outlook CSV file as it’s more widely recognized by other software, the Google CSV is fine for a local backup though.

Export Google Contacts to CSV


Syncing Contacts With Your Phone

So here’s how to sync contacts with your phone. If you have an Android you likely already use a Gmail account with it, everything is automatic, though you may need to change which set of contacts it displays. You can tinker with this in your Contacts app settings. This is slightly different on the various Android phones out there so I won’t post any instructions here. Likely as not you can search for your phone model and “display contacts” and get what you need.

IPhone Users – This is the one that most people are probably looking for. Fortunately Google has a great help file on this too. Basically Google has made a fake Exchange server service on their end to allow people to sync their email, calendar and contacts on their mobile devices.

What you want to do here is delete any GMail accounts you’ve got on your phone, then set up a new account.

Step 1 – Set up a new e-mail account.

Step 2 – Instead of selecting Gmail, select Microsoft Exchange.

Step 3 – Fill out the e-mail address with your entire Gmail address, then put in the password. Give it a good description. Tap Next.

Step 4 – It will “fail” and go to a screen asking for a server. Enter ‘’ here. Tap Next.

Step 5 – Turn on Contacts, Calendar and E-Mail Syncing (Note: Email might not work here, you might need to just turn on contacts and calendar and add gmail as an IMAP account).

If you use Google Apps for your business you will want to refer to this document here on how to set this up. It works very well for iPhone, arguably better than the Apple iCloud service.

If you did everything correctly you will now be able to get access to your contacts (and calendar) everywhere you go. You can enter contacts on your phone and it will sync to the web and vice versa. Make sure you don’t EVER use SIM contacts on your phone, if your phone gets stolen or the SIM card dies they are gone forever. This method insures that once you set a new phone up, your contacts just appear within a few minutes.


How To Child Proof Your Internet At Home For Free

A lot of people ask me this and unfortunately it’s one of those hard things to just tell someone how to do verbally. A lot of parents want to filter the internet for their kids, something that I don’t blame them for. I will post a few really hard to bypass methods, but this one is tough enough to get around that your average middle schooler probably won’t have enough skill or knowledge to bypass. It is also super easy to implement.

This is the DNS blocking method of parental control. The great thing about it is that you don’t need any special software on your kid’s computer. This is filtered past the router level and for the most part works very well.

The quick and dirty method of blocking adult content is by using OpenDNS’s preconfigured FamilyShield Method. I would also like to point out that a nice side effect of this method is your internet will be a bit faster as far as finding websites are concerned. A drawback is you might see just a touch more advertising when you make a typo on a web address.

Use Open DNS FamilyShield

Step 1 – Log into your router. You can check my “Setup Home Wi-Fi” article for how to child proof your router. Added benefit, this will keep people on the street out of your home internet service too.

Step 2 – Go to the section where you set up your DHCP server, most of the time this is under network settings. On Cisco/Linksys routers (which I recommend) this actually on the first screen you see (basic setup). Look at the DNS servers. Usually this will have your router address under the fist entry. Change the DNS settings here to:

DNS 1:
DNS 2:

Click Save

Step 3 – Once these changes are committed (make sure your router address is not in the DHCP server DNS list), reboot everything in your house so they get the new DNS settings.

This is all you should have to do, you may need to reboot things a few times before it takes effect. If you’ve got some weird brand of router this will still work, but you’ll want to go to and check out their instructions, they’ve got a pretty comprehensive router database.

Note: If you have AT&T DSL, their tech support people can probably walk you through this. Just tell them you’d like to change your DNS servers to OpenDNS so you can filter the internet for your kids. Just give them the numbers above and they will likely walk you through all this if you have one of their 2WIRE modems.

Now a lot of IT professionals will tell you this is fairly easy to bypass. If you’ve got a kid who’s really good with computers, they might figure out how to bypass it. If you are a parent, e-mail me and I can tell you how to bypass this on your own devices.

I have a somewhat more advanced, more difficult to bypass method involving a Cisco/Linksys router and DD-WRT that I’ll be publishing soon. It’s cheaper than what I consider the BEST method, but definitely not free (unless you’ve already got the router, don’t mind messing with it and don’t mind paying roughly $5 more a month for internet).

Quite frankly this is not the best option but it’s free, and for most families it’s good enough. If you want to know how to do this right and make it tough for your children to get around even if they know that one kid who knows everything about computers, check back here for an article on one of the best pieces of hardware a parent can buy.

If you found this information useful please comment (I LOVE novel length comments!), Facebook about the blog, tweet the article (check out the buttons below) or send me a note on the contact form up above. Also check out that Amazon ad below, there’s usually something good in the rotation.